|Introductory course, building directly on the knowledge acquired during per-university education.
Characteristics: Teaching based on a general textbook or syllabus, pedagogically structured, with exercises and tests; tutor-guided seminars; accents in study material and examples in lectures.
||Introductory course, requiring no specific prior knowledge but expecting experience with independent study.
Characteristics: Textbooks or other teaching material of a more or less introductory nature; lectures e.g. as capita selecta ; independent study is expected.
||Course for advanced students, prerequisite level 100 or 200.
Characteristics: Books used are not necessarily written specifically for teaching; independent study; independent application of subject matter to solve new problems.
||Specialised course, prerequisite level 200 or 300.
Characteristics: Use of professional literature (articles in journals) next to textbooks; examination (partly) through a limited study, a lecture or a paper. A component at this level may to some extent also be part of a master’s programme.
||Course with an academic orientation, entrance requirements at master’s level.
Characteristics: Study of advanced professional literature meant for researchers; tests aimed at problem solving by a paper or original research, with independent critical reflection on the course materials.
||Highly specialized course, prerequisite level 400 or 500.
Characteristics: Topical research papers; stat-of-the-art academic thinking; oral presentation of an original contribution (thesis) dealing with a yet unsolved problem.